The Ramah Navahos
Bilingual: Navajo and English. Son of Former Many Beads begins his narration by telling us that his parents had been rounded up by Kit Carson’s troops, were driven to Fort Sumner during the Long Walk period and managed to escape from imprisonment to live with the Chiricahua Apaches. He was born among the Chiricahua two years later, and returned with his family to their homeland after the tribe had been released from internment at Fort Sumner. His father, Many Beads eventually moved back to the Ramah area with his family, where they once had lived. His narration spans the time before first contact with the white man, to the thirties of last century, relating the struggle for survival against intruding Mormons, the railroad company and the US government. This interview was recorded in 1930 and written in the Navajo language in 1954 by linguists, Young and Morgan. The English translation follows the original Navajo text sentence by sentence. We gain insight into the difficulties his people encounter to regain the status as rightful residents on their own land.